The nineteenth century Portuguese has been the subject of numerous studies conducted from mid-twentieth century, covering various sectors of its social history, economic, political, cultural. However, not all topics are covered. Decorative environments where all the arts harmonize, integrate this almost forgotten. Some environments of Romanticism we studied arrived intact to this day. Others were victims of shares between heirs and unsustainable maintenance of large homes. And we stress the inevitable reform in nineteenth-century atmosphere because changing habits becomes essential new thematic magazines and multifaceted objects to decorate them. But respect for romantic settings was not expected, because the fleeting evolution of taste, combined with the contingencies of the consumer society, devastates its authenticity.
The fact that they are revivalist always questioned their age. Let’s try to understand it through the romantic settings displayed, it will have reached the best time to look at this ‘new style’ still considered tacky and whose inspiration came from the royal environments. In northern Portugal, there are many houses with characteristic environments of this period (more and less intervened).
The nineteenth-century arts will seek to influence every age, recreating the more remote past, with knowledge artistic, socio-cultural and already industrialized then. It is this learning that interests us focus, to the extent that changes the course of being, living and feeling from a retreat made to the Middle Ages. The fashion for exotic, complemented by passion for the Middle Ages, is the strongest revivals of all.
Rethinking existence, removing and accumulating previous knowledge, the nineteenth century evolves as a summary of arts and sciences with its own interpretation. Understands it as not only as the great era of changes and inventions but almost isolated at the mercy of looks and special you feel each individual inserted in a given family and social layer. The activities, wealth and social status of the head of the house, as well as relations among its members, influence the structuring, restructuring or disruption of families, now gathering, now rejecting marital or kindred members, and even created. The region can make a difference and not by chance we look back on environments of noble houses of northern Portugal.
It seems obvious that the region above the Douro river, historically closed and isolated in his private life – without forgetting all the Douro region and Beira Alta – has best preserved values and traditions, transmitted from generation to generation of noble families and aristocratic. The speed of fashions, movement of goods and families, and adherence to foreign loanwords, centralization of power, Lisbon turns out to be penalized in respect of nineteenth-century intact environments. It remains for us to refer the decoration of Ajuda National Palace that could have meant the European level as to the decoration of the Tuileries Palace was destroyed by the Paris Commune in 1871. In civilian homes, environments remain open to study, not shunning behavior, taste and live in a society sensitive to the varied type of artistic manifestations.
The noble houses of Guimarães are highlighted as initially thought dwell on Guimarães environments exclusively, a compliment to the city known as the cradle of Nationality. The abundance, originality and historical and artistic wealth of examples north of the Douro river did change our course, extending to other locations.
We opted for a geographical basis in their description, starting from Porto to the Alto Minho inland and coastal. Relate, so the rooms of the house of the Viscount of Gandara, founded by a Brazilian ennobled, with the Palace Bonaventure, also in Porto, and the Village Beatriz in Povoa de Varzim. How we relate to other examples.
The flow of people between the countryside and the city, and even in other cities or countries, creates and strengthens directed immigration networks originating Brazilians and their flourishing style transferred to the northern Portuguese where they came from – which is stated in revivalists ostentatious palaces of joanino period, as a replica of those who benefit from Brazil’s income, not staying more than three or four generations.
Porto maintains a relatively stable flow of emigration, the most abrupt swings from the surrounding districts of greater rurality – more sensitive to socio-economic changes and the times of crisis. Initially, a phenomenon located in the northwest of the coastal strip, the national emigration from the 80, undergoes a transformation and spreads to all the Portuguese regions.
The years 1835 and 1880 are presented as the highest limit period romantic date, as above announced. If the first romantic steps are taken in the late eighteenth century and the ultimate, drag until the early twentieth century, its mature age rejoices for about 50 years – which seems to be a significant and worthy time to be thorough.
The year 1835 (or 34, or 36) marks the end of the tax to the works Help Palace with frustration the previous neoclassical project life and death of Domingos Sequeira (1768-1837) that has marks of a last vestige eighteenth century. Not coincidentally, the same year of 1835, are affirmed romantic works resulting from the new proposal of the official teaching of Fine Arts and the National Theatre. Since 1880 (or 79) represented the definitive break of Pombaline structures (and traditional) in Lisbon, with the arrival in Paris of the artists who would become the national founders of naturalist painting.
It is therefore with the collapse of the Jeronimos imitated by Giuseppe Luigi Cinatti (1808-1879) – and his death – which starts to discontinue the active phase of Romanticism. From then on, we entered a period of artistic reflections that extend back in time to the early twentieth century and even during the twentieth century (although they have been so often renegades).
The environments of these houses erected or just intervened in the eighteen hundreds, are described in novels and opinions of notable writers such as Camilo Castelo Branco and Eça de Queirós. They are perpetuating ways, people, experiences, prejudices (and concepts), times of reflection where the past is never lost. We highlight six of the examples that seem relevant in terms of romantic decorative environments in noble houses likely to exert a strong influence at the time, although we have studied environments of other houses, scattered throughout the northern Portuguese, to which we referencing.
In addition to the interest of these estates, characteristic of noble families acquis (some already dismantled), the description of goods, which takes us to the reality of the great houses of the Court Nobility, appealing to a rise in the nobility since the second half of the century XVIII. After the search of noble houses, we highlight both environments preserved as recently dismantled by shares, with the majority already eclectic and adapted to the taste of the twentieth century.
We consider, as examples reveal, the homes of Villar d’Allen and the viscount of Gandara (in Porto), the houses of Carmo, S. Cipriano and Sezim (in Guimarães) and the home of Boavista (in Ponte da Barca) .
Villar d’Allen, despite being remodeled initially by John Allen, is his son, Alfredo Allen, 1st Viscount of Villar d’Allen that transforms the living museum of curiosities linked to the family and naturalia, which remains . In all studied Villar d’Allen is perhaps one of the most romantic in that conserves memory and past operations.
Already home to classicism style erected in the Eastern Harbour, the 1st Viscount of Gandara has central heating boilers through an underground floor and bathrooms with ventilation – the image of the great victorianas homes. Your decorative environments relate (more than any other ever before by us revealed), with the Palace Boaventura, later built in full Avenida da Boavista in the same city.
The headquarters of the Institute of Architect José Marques da Silva, located in Marquês square still in Porto, was, for us, another discovery in that we disclose it environments and decorative features close to those found in homes for us studied. Datable 80s of XIX century, this house is in operation by Silva Marques in 1909. We refer to the landscape of fresh booking, to entry, very similar to Beatriz Vila (Povoa de Varzim) and Casa da Camarinha in S. Félix da Marinha (V.N. Gaia); the imposing staircase decorated English-style house Visconde da Gandara; the door-pads paint and corridors, recalling the houses Villar d’Allen and Boavista; the neo-Arab dining room authorship of that master of the Academy of Porto, with reminiscences of the house of S. Cipriano, Camarinha and Boaventura.
We conclude that all interconnects. Artists and performers circulate, appropriating public examples and transposes them in particular. The owners of the houses had relations with each other, exchange of knowledge.
The house of Carmo, linked to the family of the counts of Margaride, in Guimarães, and receiving the last kings of Portugal, is stripped of its contents scattered by the family who sold the property a few years ago. Hopefully remain preserved wall paintings, the French papers, plaster, textiles, carvings, furniture, objects and sanitary painted porcelain.
In the same county, Nicola Bigaglia (1841-1908) is called to intervene in the S. Cipriano Palace after designing the house now known as Museum of Quinta de Santiago in Leça da Palmeira. By early medievalism adds decorative and architectural aesthetic already rooted in a mature Romanticism, which influences the first decades of the twentieth century. Compares it to Pindela whose house suffers a last restoration and enlargement in 1885, operated by the 2nd Viscount Pindella, personal friend of John Santiago then lord of S. Cipriano.
Also, in Guimarães, distinguish the possible taste of the contribution of Auguste Roquemont (1804-1852), the wallpaper of the house of Sezim halls ordered and implemented in full romanticism. This artist goes great stays in that location, leaving his mark for several homes to visit, taking advantage of a position arising from the fact of being the bastard son of a German prince.
Already the environments of Boavista house, in Ponte da Barca, are designed in the late nineteenth century by Benedict Malheiro Pereira Pita de Vasconcelos, 4th Viscount of Carreira. They feature an English taste, akin to Villar d’Allen, one of its characteristic the ample light from the large openings that allow contact with nature. The inspiration comes from the house of Carreira, from the family Távora of Viana do Castelo, currently the headquarters of the City Council of this town. The works occurred in nineteenth century are held simultaneously with the owners resorted to the same craftsmen.
We us focus, as a whole, the decorative arts in the private domain circulating the interior to the exterior with some constant elements of the past. They are produced in Portugal and first, in nineteenth-century Europe, because the national reality always endures as reflecting late European trends – although, this time, fashion dictated in Paris was, in many cases, immediately followed by Portugal.
The well exposed in the aesthetic sense, and will retain the look, it was not significant. The exhibit very becomes an ideal – as in Villar d’Allen, which turns to be a small museum of underwear and vivid memories in honor of John Allen.
Yet we studied romantic decorative environments, assembled and disassembled in the gardens, such as the extension of those experienced in the interiors of the houses when the weather allows. In the gardens, we found fresh houses that fit the landscape architectural forms sometimes geometric now supposedly spontaneous.
We emphasize the eighteenth century labyrinthine gardens of the Palace of S. Cipriano, adapted to the romantic taste. The windows of his house butter are even root Renaissance architecture. This outdoor space is transported to the vicinity of the eighteenth century tank with scratches in the form of lion, in the early twentieth century. All times are mixed in one – what a romantic ideal.
In other gardens, own shrubs or tree species Whittle hiding places like caves, which serves exotic drinks such as tea, coffee and chocolate. The gardens and forest Villar d’Allen, formed from several estates, are more related to the romantic spirit through the presence of meandering paths, almost wild, punctuated by architectural elements, evoking ruins.
The Sezim gardens with boxwood maze punctuated by tree and architectural elements species, are closer to this ideal English where the nature of the facilities (in nature) enjoy greater freedom. Among the exotics We reaffirm the camellias camellias or brought to Portugal from the Discoveries (first from China after Japan) that result in species with Portuguese names, as in Villar d’Allen.
In terms of existing files in covered houses, we face a lacunosa situation. We can not say that scarce documentation, as most of the studied households had the fortune of staying within the same families and be estimated. In the nineteenth and early twentieth century, there is a real concern in accumulating memories and documents (letters, postcards, receipts, account books) and the unorganized files, scatter key documents.
Without going into the minutiae of analysis, we would like to draw attention to the chronological time of the nineteenth century that goes from 1801 to 1900. The court or does, however, in 1780 or in 1820. Never, in 1801. It was established goals that divide the nineteenth century period into three parts, which are characterized by neoclassical aesthetic models, romantic and naturalistic. They all interconnected by the natural derivation. Opening a path to others and always being connected, marking the times before already announced.
Europe appears the way of Portugal, always running as its own cultural filter travelers and are used to live, in everyday life, with historical and civilizational heritage rich.
The’re feeling mixed to learn, create new states of being, experiences and environments. And while England ahead of the movement, it does not seem strange to say that the idea of Romanticism begins with John Constable (1776-1837), Thomas Lawrence (1769-1830) and Richard Parkes Bonnington (1802-1828) – which appear in the first time in Paris, to expose another vision of nature that is distinguished by surrounding light. A view of atmospheric transparency and simultaneously turbulent in time and space, taking contrasts of light, shadow and volumes that mark a new era simplified.
In Portugal, the early years of the nineteenth century political crisis (motivated by the French Invasions and removal of the royal family to Brazil), early death of Vieira Portuense, emigration Domingos Sequeira, make ephemeral renewal and development of Belas- national arts. Even with the introduction of liberalism and reforms leading to the creation of the Porto Academy of Fine Arts, the Portuguese artistic production goes alongside the aesthetic renewal movements arising, throughout Europe from the end of the 1st quarter of the century XIX. With a little ambitious school program (based on Roman and French models of the eighteenth century) and difficulty in receiving training in Europe, our young artists seeking answers from residents foreign painters in Portugal.
In Portugal, as in the Iberian Peninsula, the pictorial Romanticism late surge with Roquemont and solid formation of artists such as Francisco Augusto Metrass (1825-1861) and João António Correia (1822-1896). The Lisbonense and Porto horizon flare within a Parisian speech. The themes and expressions invade all harmonized arts in environments as one. Recreate is great scenery of a theater aimed to arouse emotions.
Regarding the decorative arts in the late nineteenth century, the taste is not recognized only in imitation and lack of imagination as in France. The increased fascination with antique furniture, will ending the modern joinery and artistic talent all carvers are made restorers, atamancadores, renovators of old frets. Leandro Braga (1839-1897), born in Braga, going at 14 to Lisbon as Ignatius of Loyola apprentice Caetano, is a passenger disciple Anatole Camels (1862) and opens shop in Lisbon (1865), working on the Senate floor and Town Hall. He lives and works as a carver in the second half of the nineteenth century, carrying out work for several personalities of the high bourgeoisie and the Portuguese aristocracy, as well as the Royal Family. Does work especially for queens, Duchess of Palmela, Carvalho Monteiro – Monteiro of millions – and Marquis of Foz that protects it takes to travel by France and England, honoring him with an exhibition at his palace Restauradores.
In the 1870s, it is introduced in the Ajuda Palace by D. Fernando, with a contract for the decoration of the dining room of the queen. The Don Luis painting studio is decorated by him, all in oak, the neo-Gothic style. Leandro Braga inspired by French and English albums, copying drawings and making replicas from old models and adding even pieces of ancient carving new furniture. Runs with the perfection of a furniture carver, doors, paneling, all and in all styles, from Renaissance to Louis XVI, contributing to the Portuguese furniture of this period is not forgotten and satisfying the historicist taste of their clients who adhere to fashion Europe.
Despite the resistance that the noble families make in joining the new revivalist style, all end up joining more or less relevant way, having been the Ajuda Palace one of the best examples to follow.